Leanin.org’s Alexis Krivkovich and McKinsey & Company’s Eric Kutcher joined forces to find out why women still lag dramatically behind men in the workplace. Armed with HR data and 34,000 employee surveys from 132 companies, they found that implicit bias, and assumptions that women make about the stressful nature of c-level jobs, are among the many things in play.

Krivkovich and Kutcher say that for women of color, the problems that stunt growth play out more acutely. Even though they enter the pipeline in representative numbers, today, women of color hold only 3% of C-level positions.

What makes this striking is that women of color self-report higher aspirations than other women, yet they receive less access to challenging assignments where they can grow or showcase their talent, and their contributions are not as valued.

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